Aresti’s fundamental insight was that almost any aerobatic figure can be broken down Pingback: Aresti Notation (aerobatic symbols) | The Aerobatic Project. EXPLANATION OF ARESTI SYMBOLS. Beginning of flight. | End of flight. Inside loop (positive G). Start of manoeuvre. Outside loop (negative G). First published in , José Luis de Aresti’s ‘Sistema Aresti’ provided Aresti Notation (aerobatic symbols), Part 1: the Standard Known.

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These descriptions are NOT intended as instruction. No pilot should attempt to fly any of these figures in aircraft symbolls certified for aerobatic flight. Further, no pilot should attempt these figures without training from a competent aerobatic instructor. Below is a list of aerobatic figures and the symbols used to represent them.

Each figure starts at the small solid circle and ends at the vertical bar. All aerobatic figures start and end from horizontal lines in either upright or inverted flight. Solid lines describe upright flight, and dashed lines describe inverted flight. These describe straight flight in these directions. Parts of loops connect these line segments.

The looping portions in almost all figures have to have the same radius in all parts of a figure. For instance the quarter loops going into and coming out of a hammerhead have to have the same radius. There are some figures where this does not apply completely. Any deviation from the wresti results in symbbols downgrading during a competition.

Aresti Notation (aerobatic symbols), Part 1: the 2011 Standard Known sequence

The K-values included with the competition figures give an indication of the difficulty of each of these maneuvers. Higher K-values mean more difficult maneuvers. Each figure is assigned a score from 0 to 10, which is then multiplied by the K factor. There are four basic types of rolls: The aileron and barrel rolls are not flown in aerobatic competitions. Aileron rolls are flown with the rudder and elevator in the neutral position during the roll.

The aileron is fully deflected in the direction of the roll. This is the easiest of the rolls to fly. The aileron roll is started by pulling the nose up to 20 – 30 degrees above the horizon. The elevator is then neutralized and the aileron fully deflected in the direction of the roll. The controls are maintained in that position till the roll is completed.

After the roll is completed the nose is usually 20 – 30 degrees below the horizon. Slow rolls are flown normally on a straight line one exception is rolls flown at the top of a loop. The roll rate has to be constant and the flight path must continue in a straight line. This requires constantly changing rudder and elevator atesti inputs throughout the roll.

Hesitation or point rolls include stops at certain roll angles. Two- four- and eight-point rolls are allowed. If no points are specified, rolling is done without hesitations.

A roll symbol that starts at the line denotes a half roll see description of the Immelman. A roll symbol that crosses the line specifies a full roll first figure. A detailed explanation on how to properly execute a competition Slow Roll to the IAC judging standards. This is a qresti explanation on how to properly execute the Point Roll maneuver to the IAC Competition judging standards.


A snap roll is similar to an accelerated horizontal spin — essentially an autorotation with one wing stalled. Figure 1 shows the symbol for a regular inside snap roll. Figure 2 shows an outside snap. In the inside snap, the plane is momentarily stalled by applying positive G forces.

In an outside snap, the plane is stalled by applying negative G. In both cases rudder is then used to start autorotation just like in a spin. This is one of the most basic maneuvers, but not easy to fly well. It has to be perfectly round, entry and exit have to be at the same altitude. The maneuver starts with a pull-up of about 3 to 4 G.

Once past the vertical, the back pressure on the elevator is slowly relaxed to float over to top of the arezti to keep it round.

Past the top, the back pressure is slowly increased again throughout the back part till horizontal flight. Rudder is used to maintain a constant heading throughout figure and symblos are used to maintain the orientation of the wings. This is a detailed explanation on how to properly arwsti a Loop to the IAC judging standard. The roll has to be centered at the top of the loop. This is a variation of sybmols basic loop. The two vertical symboos and the horizontal line on top have to be of the same length.

The exit line at the bottom has to be at least aesti long as the other three sides.

The quarter loops that connect the four sides have sybmols have the same radius at each corner. This is another variation of the basic loop.


The exit line at the bottom has to be at least as long as the other seven sides. The eight loops that connect the eight sides have to have the same radius at each corner. The figure starts with a half loop to inverted flight. A half roll then results in horizontal upright flight. This trades speed for altitude. This is a detailed explanation of the Immelman to competition judging standards.

Aresti Catalog – Wikipedia

This is another maneuver to reverse direction. This one, like the Immelman, does not preserve speed and altitude.

In this case it trades altitude for speed. This figure also is the second half of a loop downward, this time an outside loop. You push forward and fly the second half of an outside loop till you are in horizontal inverted flight. Make sure you are not too fast going into the maneuver, otherwise you may exceed redline speed.

This is another one of the maneuvers that reverse direction. The downline can be used to adjust the altitude and speed at the end of the figure.

This is a detailed explanation of how to properly execute a Half Cuban Eight to the judging standards of competition aerobatics. In this figure in competition the two looping parts have to be flown at the same altitude with the same radius. The exit has to be at the same qresti as the entrance to the figure. Symblls Half Cuban Eight.


Centered on this line is a half roll from upright to inverted. Five-eighths of a loop complete the figure to horizontal flight. This again is one of the maneuvers that have been used to reverse direction while qresti altitude and airspeed.

This figure is similar to a Full Cuban Eight, but the second loop is an outside loop. Again, the two loops have to have the same radius and have to be flown at the same altitude, and entry symhols exit altitudes have to be the same. It starts with a quarter loop into a vertical climb. When the plane stops climbing, it pivots around its vertical axis which is now horizontal.

The nose moves in a vertical circle from pointing up through the horizon to pointing down. After moving vertically down to sybmols up speed again, the maneuver is finished with the last quarter of a loop to horizontal flight.

This figure can have optionally rolls on both the sumbols and the down-line. The quarter loop is flown just like the first part of a loop. When the plane is vertical, the elevator back pressure is released completely.

Sjmbols the vertical line up, some right aileron and right rudder is needed to maintain the vertical attitude because of the engine torque and p-factor. When the plane has slowed enough, full rudder initiates the turnaround. Symbils is followed by right-forward stick right aileron and forward elevator to keep the plane from xresti off.

The pivot is stopped with opposite rudder when the nose points straight down. When the pivot symbolz completed, the ailerons and rudder are neutralized. Elevator and rudder are used to keep the nose pointing straight down. Rolls on the downline require only aileron input if the plane is trimmed correctly.

This maneuver is sometimes called a hammerhead stall. This is not an accurate name because the airplane never stalls. The airspeed may be very low, close to zero, but since there is no wing loading during the turn-around, there is no stall at zero g wing loading, a wing does not stall. The plane is flying throughout the maneuver with all the control surfaces effective although sometimes only marginally so.

This also is one of the maneuvers that have been used to reverse direction while adjusting altitude and airspeed by changing the length of the down-line.

Aresti Notation (aerobatic symbols) | The Aerobatic Project

This is a detailed explanation on how to properly execute a Hammerhead to the IAC competition judging standard. The figure starts with a quarter loop to a vertical climb. A half loop then results in a vertical down-line.