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Power, Payment, and Persuasion 2. Know the audience and its predispositions 4. Tip of the iceberg. Recall and number of points in the argument. We typically know our audiences in a half-baked way. The importance, relevance of an issue.
Agenda settingAgenda setting A fundamental idea: Represent an intrinsic reality, have credibility. Capture attention and engage the mind. Substantive and stylistic concessions Listening is the cheapest concession you can make.
Similarity and Empathy We are more likely to be influenced by people we know and like. Who do we like? Who are similar to us Similarity Principle 2. That is, do you like others? Similarity and Empathy continued Dale Carnegie.
lrren People who are effective and not likeable. Likeability and assertiveness are not two ends of the same dimension. This is a false choice.
There are really two dimensions. Logos, ethos, pathos, agora, and syzygy 2. Counter-intuitive sources and arguments 8. Four types of attitude change Persuasion principles are self-evident. Persuasion is too easy. It is mere manipulation. Persuasion is an innate skill. Persuasion orrrn too hard. Aligning the key elements. Retention by my students: Counter-intuitive sources and arguments. Novel, fresh, surprising information may be bary to cause people to modify their predispositions and beliefs.
People wish to be and to appear to be consistent with what they have already said and done. Small initial commitments foot in the oreen can be leveraged into much larger commitments. Commitments are most powerful when they are: Felt to be an inner responsibility one has voluntarily chosen to make commitment without strong outside pressure Action Question: Can I do this persuasion in stages so that I can get an initial commitment? More learning and more retention with repetition.
When They Go Wrong: The two orrfn elements of credible authority: Why should the audience accept my word? Especially if I am not well known to the audience: How can I convey my expertise and integrity? Can I say something which is apparently contrary to my self-interest?
The power of social norms. Conformity is a time-saving device, increases chances of being correct, yields social approval or avoids disapproval.
Gary Orren at Harvard Kennedy School Of Government –
Who else orrdn speak for me or my cause? Who can better invoke peer pressure than me? Paraphrase your understanding of speaker’s words. Ask questions for clarification with genuine intent to learn. Acknowledge the speaker’s concerns, strengths, feelings, efforts.
Be an active listener. Avoid rehearsing your next response while “listening. Good body language e. Tangible free samples 2. Info for the Media b. Expressions of Appreciation, disclosure, acknowledgement c. Recommendations conveys objectivity, honesty 2. Dominate subordinate Power vs. Humor which is self-deprecating, self-mocking, self-parody is effective reciprocation, concession, and vulnerability.
Who are similar to us. Who have cooperated with us for common goals. With whom we have pleasant associations. What genuinely admirable qualities does my audience have? Is there a genuine similarity between me and my audience?
Effective but unlikable leaders: Power Short run vs. Food StampsFood Stamps Australian immigration human rights vs. Either you frame your bary, or you get framed. Persuasiveness is not entirely innate. We can learn, acquire, develop, cultivate new habits and skills of persuasion and improve old ones. Other personal talents e. Success in adult life professional and personal probably depends more on persuasion skills than on native intelligence. Rather, people can make marginal improvements in their persuasion skills.
But these marginal orrfn can be decisive in how successful people are in persuasion. That is because we rarely lose our most important persuasion projects by a lopsided landslide. Opportunities seem more valuable when their availability is limited.
Applies to information and ideas, not just commodities. Couch your persuasion argument in terms of what an audience stands to lose, not just in terms of the anticipated ggary since loss appears to be a more motivating concept than gain. Information that is gayr, new, or exclusive should be stated early in a persuasion message establishing a strong reason for people to listen. Can I tell my audience something that is scarce, new, or exclusive?
Can I help my audience avoid a loss? De-activation Have your strategic objective clearly in mind. Which type of attitude change is most appropriate for your persuasion situation?
We tend to assume that conversion is always our goal. Forget about trying to convert your adversary. In any serious ideological confrontation the chances of success on this score are so remote as to exclude it as a rational objective.
Garry great attention to the agenda of orrdn debate. He who defines the issues, and determines their priority, is already well on the way to winning.
Preaching to the converted, far from being a superfluous activity, is vital. Preachers do gxry every Sunday. The strengthening of the commitment, intellectual performance, and morale of those already on your side is an essential task, both in order to bind them ofren securely to the cause and to make them more effective exponents of it.
Never forget the uncommitted: Be aware that, at least potentially, you are addressing multiple audiences. Decide whether, on a particular occasion, you want to make a broad appeal to many audiences, which will usually involve compromise and restraint in presentation, or whether you want to make lrren sharply focused pitch to a particular audience, even at the risk of alienating others.
Be prepared to go around the block many times.