The samkhya philosophy; containing samkhya-pravachana sutram, with the It contains introduction, TOC, index, appendices – everything but the Sutra itself. The Contents of the the modest title of the Sdrnkhya-Praoacliana-Sutra,m, An introduction only now remains to be written. .. 10 The Samkhya-Pravachana is an elaboration of the Tattva-Samasa 11 The name ” Samkhya ” explained. the Sutras appeared only in 15th century (Sastri, “Introduction” vii). The issue of Pravachana); the Laghu-Sankhya-Sutra-Vritti or Laghu-Sankhya-Vritti by.

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Intrpduction the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. Full text of ” The samkhya philosophy; containing samkhya-pravachana sutram, with the vritti of Aniruddha, and the bhasya of Vijnana Bhiksu and extracts from the vritti-sara of Mahadeva Vedantin; tatva samasa; samkhya karika; panchasikha sutram.

The present volume of the Sacred Books of the Hindus which bears The Contents of the the modest title of the Sdrnkhya-Praoacliana-Sutra,m, is, in reality, a collection of all the available original documents of the School of the Samkhyas, with the single exception of the commentary composed by Vyasa on theSdmhhya-Pravaehana-Yoga-Sutram of Patanjali.

1. Sankhya | Mahavidya

An attempt, moreover, has been made to make the volume useful in many other respects by the addition, for instance, of elaborate analytical tables of contents to the Sdmkhya-Prauachana-Sutram and the Sdmhhya-Kdrikd, and of a number of important appendices. In the preparation of this volume, I have derived very material help from the excellent editions of the Vritti of Aniruddha and the Bhdsya of Vijnana Bhiksu on the Sdmkhya-Pravachana-Sutram by Dr. Richard Garbe, to whom my thanks are due. An introduction only now remains to be written.

In this preface, therefore, only a very brief account is given of some of the cardinal doctrines of the Samkhya School. The effect, therefore, is never non-existent ; whether before its production, or whether after its destruction, it is always existent in the cause.

For, nothing can come out of nothing, and nothing can altogether vanish out of existence. This doctrine would be better understood by a comparison with Definition of Cause and the contrary views held by other thinkers on the Effect.

Samkhya Pravachana Sutra

But before we proceed to state these views, we should define the terms ” cause ” and ” effect. In fact, whatever makes the accomplishment of the effect possible, is one of its causes. And the immediate result of the operation of these causes, is their effect. Time and Space, however, are universal causes, inasmuch as they are presupposed in each and every act of causation.

Obviously, there is a real distinction between the Updddna and the Nimiwa: To take the case of a coin, for example: Similarly, the Samkhyas distinguish the Effect under the twofold aspect of simple manifestation and of re-production. Thus, the coin is an instance of causation by re-production, while the production of cream from milk is an instance of causation by simple manifestation. Now, as to the origin of the world, there is a divergence of opinion among thinkers of different Schools: Some uphold the Theory of Creation, others maintain the Theory of Evolution.

Among the Creationists are counted the Nastikas or Nihilists, the Buddhists, and the Naiyayikas ; and among the Evolutionists, the Vedantins and the Samkhyas. The Nas tikas- hold that the world is non-existent, that is, unreal, and that it came out of what was not introducgion the Buddhists hold that the world is existent, that is, real, and that it came out of what was not ; the Naiyayikas hold that the world is non-existent, that is, non-eternal, perishable, and that it came out of the existent, that is, what is eternal, imperishable; the Vedantins hold that the world is non-existent, that is, unreal, and that it came out of what was existent, that is, real, namely, Brahman ; and the Samkhyas hold that the world is existent, that is, real, and that it came out of what autra existent, that is, real, namely, the Pradhdna.

Thus, there are the A-Sat-Kdrya-Vdda of the Nastikas that a non-existent world has been produced from a non-existent cause, and of the Buddhists that an existent world has been produced from a non-existent cause, the Abhdva-Utpatti-Vdda of the Naiyayikas that a non-eternal samkya has been produced from an eternal cause, the Vivarta-Vada of the Vedantins that the world is a re volution, an illusory appearance, of the one eternal reality, viz. Samkhyas advance the following arguments: There can be no production of what is absolutely non-existent e.


There must be some determinate material cause for every pro duct. Cream, for instance, can form on milk only, and never on water. Were it as absolutely non-existent in milk as it is in water, there would be no reason why it should form on milk, and not equally on water.

The effect is seen to possess the nature of the cause, e. Matter is indestructible ; u destruction ” means disappearance into the cause. It follows, therefore, that cause and effect are neither absolutely The World possesses dissimilar nor absolutely similar to each other.

Such being the relation between cause and effect, the world cannot possibly have come out of something in which it had been absolutely non existent, and which accordingly was, in relation to it, as good as non-existent. For the world is neither absolutely unreal nor absolutely real.

The test of objective reality is its opposition to consciousness. It is distinguished as Prcitibhdsilta or apparent, Vyavalidrika or practical or phenomenal, and Pdramarthika or transcendental.

Of samlhya, the world possesses phenomenal reality, and must, therefore, have a transcendental reality as its substratum. Thus is the Doctrine of Sat-Kdrya established. A natural corollary from the above doctrine is the other doctrine of The Doctrine of Parindma or transformation.

Now, the question arises, whether the cause of the world be a single The Cause of the one, or whether it be manifold. Some think that, World, one or manifold? The Naiyayikas were The Position of the certainly not timid explorers of samlhya truths ; Naiyayikas explained.

They are singly neither universal nor final ; but they mutually supplement one another. Pravzchana Risis address themselves to particular sets of people possessing different degrees of mental and spiritual advancement. They reveal PREFACE and explain the truths embodied in the Vedas to them from their point of view and according to their competence, and thus help them in realising the truths for themselves and thereby in progressing towards Self-realisation.

The right explanation is that they make but a partial declaration of the Vedic truths and cut short the process of resolution at the ordinary Atoms of Matter, because they address themselves to a class of students who do not possess the mental capacity to grasp introdhction truths. For the sense of unity which has found expression in the Law of Unity of the Cause of Parsimony, points to a single original of the world or material manifestation, as revealed in the Vedas.

And the Samkhya makes its students acquainted with this.

It, is called the Root, and is described as the Pradhdna, that in which all things are contained, and as Praltriti, the mother of things. The Samkhya undertakes to Samkhya. It is the genus of which the Chinas are the species. Their state of equilibrium is their latent, jpotent ml, or inactive state, the state of noTbeing developed into effects. The Gunas are extremely fine substances, and are respectively the principles of illumination, evolution, and involution, and the causes of pleasure, pain, and dullness.

For, Sattva is light and illuminating, Rajas is active and urgent, and Tamas is heavy and enveloping. They are in eternal and indissoluble conjunction with one another, aud, by nature, mutually overpower, support, produce, and intimately mix with, one another. This doctrine of the Three Gunas is the very foundation of the Samkhya Tantra.

I Everything in the world, external as well as internal, is in constant change ; and there can be no change, whether it be movement in space, or whether it vi PREFACE. Side by side, therefore, with the principle of mutation, there must be a principle of conservation. And, as Berkeley tells us, existence is perception, –whatever is not manifested to Consciousness, individual or universal, does not exist.

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Another principle is, therefore, required which would make the manifestation of the other two principles and of their products, as also of itself and of its ownto Consciousness possible. Thus, at the origin of the world, there must be a principle of conservation, a principle of mutation, and a principle of manifestation. Among them, the Powers of Cognition, e. It must then have derived these characteristics from its cause ; for nothing can be in the effect which was not in the cause.


It is these principles of manifestation, mutation, and conservation, possessing the nature of pleasure, pain, and dullness, that are respectively the Gunas, Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas, of the Samkhyas.

They are the constitutive elements of Prakriti. They are Gunas in their manifested forms; they are Prakriti in their unmanifested form. The transformations of Prakriti are either prakriti-vikriti, original or evolvent as well as modification or evolute, or vikriti, The Transformations of Prakriti.

Ihe former are and distinguished. They are Mahat, Ahamkara, and the five Tan-matras. The latter are the eleven Indriyas and the five gross Elements. The transformation of Praki-iti ceases with them. For the test of a Tattva or original or ultimate principle is that it possesses a characteristic property which is not pos sessed by any other Tattva.

At the beginning of creation, there arises in Prakriti Spandana or cosmic vibration which disturbs its state of equili- The Transformation of Prakriti is Mahat or briutn, and releases the Gunas from quiescence. Mahat denotes Buddhi, the material counterpart and basis of what we term Understanding or Reason. Buddhi is called Ma. Mahat also means ” light ” ; it is derived from the Vedic word Malias or Maghas, meaning light.

And Buddln is called Mahat. Or, Buddhi which is the first manifestation of the Gunas and which is the material cause of the world, is called Mahat, in order Universal and Indivi. For ” what is the Buddhi of the first-born golden- egged Brahmathe same is the primary basis of all Buddhis; it is here called the great self.

The function of Buddhi is Adhyavasftya or certainty leading to Definition of Buddhi. And these, again, are modified into in numerable forms, which, are classified as Error, Incapacity, Complacency, and Perfection.

Such is Pratyaya-sarga or the creation of Buddhi or intellectual creation as contra- distinguished from elemental creation. From Buddhi springs Aham-kara: Aham-kara is literally the I-maker. It is the Buddhi is Aham-kara. It is the principle of personal identity and of individuation. Its function is Abhimana, conceit, thinking with reference to itself, assump.

This Aham-kara, which is the first transformation of Buddhi, is the Universal and Introduuction cosmic Aham-kara, the Upadhi or adjunct of the dual Aham-karas dis- golden-egged Brahma, the Creator. It is the tinguished. The Sattvic modi- of Aham-kara are: The fications are the eleven Indriyas, that is, the five Indriays of Cognition, vis. Manas is both a power of cognition and a power of action. Assimilation and differentiation are its distinctive functions. The Tamasic modifications of Aham-kara are the five Tan-matras, viz.

And the Pravachxna bras. They are “fine substan ces,” to quote from Vijnana Bhiksu, ” the undifrerentiated a-visfesa origi nals of the Gross Elements, which form the substratum of Sound, Touch, Form, Flavour and Smell, belonging to that class that is, in that stage of their evolution in which the distinctions of fifinta pleasant 1etc.

The Tan- ma tra of Sound, possessing the attribute of Sound, is produced from Aham-kara ; then, from the Tan-matras of Sound, accompanied by Aham- kara, is produced the Tan- ma tra of Touch, possessing the attributes of Sound and Touch.

In a similar mariner, the other Tan-matras are produced, in the order of their mention, by the addition of one more attribute at each introdcution step.

The transformations of the Tan-matras are the Gross Elements of .