Kaipro acoustic systems reduce noise transmission from industrial pipework, this online calculation tool shows the impact on overall noise levels when different. What is ISO ? ISO defines the acoustic performance of three classes (A, B and C) of pipe insulation. It is applicable to the acoustic insulation. ISO is the standard that is widely accepted in the industry for designing the acoustic insulation of pipes valves and flanges. Noise can be generated by.
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In its Engineered Systems division, the company develops and distributes dedicated solutions for the international oil and gas industry. Swift graduated in with an Honors degree in Environmental Management and Technology from the University of Bradford. Specializing in environmental acoustics, he went on to receive a Ph. He joined Armacell in and has been actively involved in developing new products and markets in the area of acoustic insulation. He can be contacted at oilandgas armacell. As in all industrial facilities, when planning the construction of a new oil or gas complex, the requirements for both thermal insulation and noise control must be fulfilled.
In most cases these 2 areas are still handled separately by the respective design teams. If these 2 teams operate without any coordination, it can lead to significant inefficiencies in design and result in insulation systems that are thicker or do not fulfill all system requirements.
Flexible foam insulation is one option that can help meet both the thermal and acoustical requirements for a number of oil and gas applications. While flexible elastomeric foams have grown in popularity to prevent corrosion under insulation CUI for the oil and gas industry, this article will focus primarily on its acoustical abilities.
Flexible foam insulation typically refers to elastomer-based materials consisting predominantly of synthetic rubber.
BS ISO Acoustic insulation for pipes, valves and flanges, BS, ISO
Flexible elastomeric foams FEFs were introduced in the s, marking an industry transition from the previous common practice of installing heavy, rigid insulation layers. The use of elastomeric insulation grew quickly, and with the introduction of continuous sheet products, preformed tubular sections, and self-adhesive tubes and sheets, the number of application areas continued to expand.
FEFs can be installed on all kinds of 115665, from residential service-water piping and ducting to large commercial chillers and ventilation systems.
In recent years, the demand for insulation with multifunctional capabilities has increased dramatically, and flexible foams have proven to be one of the suitable options for addressing numerous new challenges.
Multifunctional Thermal and Acoustical Solutions
FEF is flexible, which may reduce complexity during installation on pipework, bends, fittings, equipment, and vessels. Its flexibility also allows it to withstand vibration and movement without degrading. While installing foam insulation does require the knowledge of an experienced insulation contractor, it can be installed without special tools or equipment.
Time is an extremely critical factor in any new-build construction in the oil and gas industry. The contractually-defined milestones for the completion of a large facility, such as a liquid natural gas LNG liquefaction plant or petrochemical complex, can only be achieved if the time and cost estimates for the individual work packages are satisfied at each stage of the project.
In the case of insulation, the speed at which the materials can be installed is likely to play a deciding role in the specification and selection of particular insulation types. FEF insulation materials may be somewhat more expensive than traditional insulation materials. Savings can be achieved, however, with efficient installation around more complex fittings. Space and weight are also crucial factors in the design, construction, and maintenance of oil and gas facilities.
Acoustical insulation is of paramount importance in regard to personnel. Compressors, pumps, control, and relief valves generate significant noise levels, which are transmitted into the connecting pipework. Noise is often increased when gases and fluids flow under high pressure or velocity, and turbulence is generated in the vicinity of obstacles such as valves or orifice plates, or as a result of changes in flow direction.
Among acoustic engineers, the general view is that noise from pipework can account for around half the total noise output sound power of a typical petrochemical or LNG liquefaction facility.
According to an article published by the National Insulation Association NIApiping can be the primary radiator of sound in industrial plants. The excessive noise levels that can arise through unprotected or inadequately insulated installations are not just an annoyance for the employees; they are also a risk to their health.
Noise-induced hearing loss is one of the most common occupational injuries. The risk of accidents in the workplace also rises due to noise—such as when warning sirens or alarms are not heard.
Furthermore, noisy environments often lead to a drop in individual performance and a loss of concentration, resulting in mistakes and the subsequent risk of injury. Excessive industrial noise also causes disturbance to neighboring residential communities, as well as adversely affecting the behavior of local fauna e.
Noise mitigation begins with the right choice of equipment, materials, and a well-planned layout to ensure minimal noise generation. Existing site measurements and past engineering experience, coupled with computer modeling techniques, are often employed to establish best practice for quieter plant design. When all appropriate measures to reduce noise at the source have been explored, insulating pipes is the most effective method of attenuating noise from process lines.
Traditional soundproofing or acoustic insulation for industrial applications has often consisted of mineral wool, plastic foam, polyester, or fibrous material with a cladding outer shell or jacket made of aluminium, stainless, or galvanized steel sheets; loaded vinyl barriers; or metal jackets. The acoustic performance of these systems depends on the thickness and density of the materials. In cold or cryogenic processes, rigid, closed-cell insulation—such as polyisocyanurate or cellular glass—is often used to provide thermal protection and mineral wool insulation is layered on top for acoustical purposes.
FEFs have been used for many years in industrial noise control, especially in applications where fibrous materials are not suitable. There was a time when FEFs were considered unsuitable for sound control in industrial installation—until the acoustic insulation performance of FEFs began to be explored in the early s. Extensive studies have demonstrated that FEF layers can be combined to achieve excellent vibro-acoustic insulation performance suitable for noise control on industrial process pipelines.
In order to further enhance the acoustic performance of these systems, it was necessary to investigate methods for changing the structure of the materials to improve sound io properties.
Elaborate research in cooperation with the University of Bradford Great Britain succeeded in developing a completely new FEF material with excellent sound-absorption capabilities.
It is important to note, however, that ieo FEF is converted from closed to cell to open cell, the water transmission properties, both liquid and water vapor—as well as the thermal conductivity—are negatively impacted.
As stated earlier, significant noise is generated from pipework. The failure of a selected system to satisfy the criteria set for all octave bands results in that system either being classified to a lower grade or alternatively remaining unclassified.
In order to account for changes in acoustic kso efficiencies, the classification also makes a distinction depending on the pipe diameter. Details on the test set up and test procedure can be taken directly from ISO and are not provided in detail here.
However, a short explanation of the test follows to aid understanding. Figure 6 shows the test set up, including the sound source.
BS ISO 15665:2003
The insulation construction is mounted on the pipe inside the reverberation room, ensuring that the pipes are carefully sealed with mastic in the 2 penetration areas. The mean sound pressure level is measured using a microphone attached to a rotating sio in accordance with ISO in the frequency range of Hz to 10 kHz.
Dw is the insertion loss dB Lb is the mean one-third octave sound pressure level of the uninsulated pipe dB Io is the mean one-third octave sound pressure level of ieo insulated pipe dB Lbr is the mean one-third octave sound pressure level in the room for comparison sound source of the uninsulated pipe dB Lcr is the mean one-third octave sound pressure level in the room for comparison sound source of the insulated pipe dB.
The insertion loss for the octave band frequency can be calculated from the one-third octave band frequency as follows:. Dwi is the insertion loss per one-third octave band of the corresponding octave band. According to the requirements of ISOdifferent multi-layer constructions kso developed.
The standard distinguishes between classes A, B, and C, and correspondingly, 3 different insulation systems are offered.
In most cases, the new FEF systems greatly exceed the reductions required in the individual classes of the standard. These composite multifunctional systems not only fulfill acoustic requirements, but they also provide stable thermal insulation performance, condensation control, and personal protection.
They satisfy tough fire performance requirements and international approvals such as DNV and BV, cope with harsh environmental conditions including adverse weather, saltwater spray, UV exposure, etc. One of the unique aspects of these FEF-based thermal acoustic insulation systems is that they are built up modularly. FEF systems allow the potential for both thermal insulation and noise control to be satisfied in one system. The construction of the system is specified according to the individual requirements of the plant to be insulated.
Additionally, the material is flexible and can take a great deal of vibration and movement without degrading. Developments in FEF technology are allowing owners and operators of LNG and other oil and gas facilities to satisfy often conflicting health and safety requirements with insulation systems that offer improved acoustic performance combined with a reduced risk of CUI. These new multi-layer constructions conform to the relevant classification criteria of ISO for the acoustic insulation of pipes, valves, and flanges.
In most cases, they greatly exceed the noise level reductions required. While FEFs were considered niche products in the oil and gas industry in the s, these materials are now established in the market and are regularly used.
FEFs are specified and selected on an ever-growing number of major oil and gas projects, most recently for the Australian Greater Gorgon and the Ichthys LNG facilities. With the target of extracting 8. Given their ability to meet thermal, acoustic, and combined thermal-acoustic insulation needs, they offer a good option for many industrial applications. Mark Swift and Kirill V. Acoustics, Acoustic insulation for pipes valves and flanges. International Organisation for Standardisation.
All photos and figures in this article are courtesy of Armacell unless otherwise noted. This article was published in the June issue of Insulation Outlook magazine.
Multifunctional Thermal and Acoustical Solutions – Insulation Outlook
The contents of this website and Insulation Outlook magazine may not be reproduced in any means, in whole or in part, without the prior written permission of the publisher and NIA. Generally, when the words duct insulation and acoustics appear in the same sentence, I usually think duct liner and sound absorption. If I am having a more cerebral moment, I may think insertion loss or friction loss.
But that is not all there is to HVAC duct insulation. While duct liners certainly play an important Read Article. When designing an HVAC system, noise should be one of the primary considerations.
In many cases, HVAC systems have served the dual purpose of temperature control and white noise. Sound waves generated in industrial environments add up to noise that can be reduced with insulation.
Increasing population density and mobility, and mechanization of workplaces, households, and leisure activities, have resulted in increased general noise exposure for most people. The consequences for many are concentration and sleep disturbances, noise-induced hearing loss noise deafnessand damage to the nervous system in the form of stomach, heart, and circulatory problems.
According to statistics Read Article. Insulation contractors have all the materials on hand that are necessary to control noise.
Multifunctional Thermal and Acoustical Solutions. History Flexible foam insulation typically refers to elastomer-based materials consisting predominantly of synthetic rubber.
Installation Specifics FEF is flexible, which may reduce complexity during installation on pipework, bends, fittings, equipment, and vessels. Development of Elastomeric Noise Control Systems FEFs have been used for many years in industrial noise control, especially in applications where fibrous materials are not suitable.
Requirements of ISO As stated earlier, significant noise is generated from pipework. Test Set Up Details on the test set up and test procedure can be taken directly from ISO and are not provided in detail here. The insertion loss for each frequency range is calculated using the following formula: Dw is the insertion loss dB Lb is the mean one-third octave sound pressure level of the uninsulated pipe dB Lc is the mean one-third octave sound pressure level of the insulated pipe dB Lbr is the mean one-third octave sound pressure level in the room for comparison sound source of the uninsulated pipe dB Lcr is the mean one-third octave sound pressure level in the room for comparison sound source of the insulated pipe dB The insertion loss for the octave band frequency can be calculated from the one-third octave band frequency as follows: Conclusions Developments in FEF technology are allowing owners and operators of LNG and other oil and gas facilities to satisfy often conflicting health and safety requirements with insulation systems that offer improved acoustic performance combined with a reduced risk of CUI.